In the oil and gas industry, a drill bit is a tool used when drilling wells or for horizontal directional drilling used for pipeline crossings. The bit is used to crush and cut into rock formation. The drill bit is at the bottom part of the bottom hole assembly (BHA), drill string, and drill stem.
The drill bit is turned in a rotational manner which cuts and/or crushes the rock as it turns. Some bits smash rock in a hammer like motion in the vertical direction. These bits are called hammer bits.There are four (4) common types of drill bits:
- Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC)
- Roller Cone
The most common bits being roller cone bits where three (3) cones are typically utilized. The cones contain the cutting elements. These bits use a rolling cutting motion. A configuration of two (2) or four (4) cones is possible but rare.